Skyhawk Information Sources

Presented on this page is documentation supporting the information on this site and further information about the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk .

Last Updated 30 SEP 2015

This Skyhawk Association website page is dedicated posthumously to Naval Aviator
and stunt pilot Art Scholl, who was killed while making the movie "Top Gun."
Art Scholl

Skyhawk Books:

  • US Navy and Marine Corps A-4 Skyhawk Units Of The Vietnam War" by Peter Mersky / Osprey Combat Aircraft - 69, 2007, ISBN 13: 978 1 84603 181 6
  • "Rampart Raider - An A-4 Skyhawk Pilot in Vietnam" by Stephen R. Gray NOV 2007, ISBN 978-1-59114-342-0
  • "A-4 Skyhawk", by Lindsey Peacock / Osprey Combat Aircraft series, Osprey, 1987, ISBN 0-85045-817-X.
  • "A-4 Skyhawk in Action", by Lou Drendel, Squadron / Signal Publications, 1973.
  • "A-4 Skyhawk in Detail & Scale, D & S Vol. 32", by Bert Kinzey, TAB Books, 1989.
  • "Alfa Strike Vietnam, The Navy's Air War, 1964 to 1973", by Jeffrey Levinson, Presidio Press, Novato, CA, 1989.
  • "Baa Baa Black Sheep", by Colonel Gregory Boyington, USMC, Wilson Press, Fresno, 1958.
  • "Captain Hook: A Pilot's Tragedy and Triumph in the Vietnam War", by Captain Wynn F. Foster, USN, Naval Institute Press, 1992.
  • "Carrier Operations - The Vietnam War", by Edward Marolda, Bantam Books, 1987.
  • "Colors & Markings of Colorful U.S. Navy A-4 Skyhawks", by Bert Kinzey and Ray Leader, TAB Books, Blue Ridge Summit, PA, 1991 (USBN 0-85310-625-9)
  • "Colors & Markings of the U.S. Navy Adversary Aircraft", by Bert Kinzey and Ray Leader, TAB Books, Blue Ridge Summit, PA, 1991 (USBN 0-8506-8350-8)
  • "Combat Aircraft Series A-4 Skyhawk", by Lindsay Peacock, Osprey Publishing London, 1987.
  • "Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons, Volume 1: The History of VA, VAH, VAK, VAL, VAP, and VFA Squadrons", by Roy A. Grossnick, Naval Historical Center, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1995. $50.00. ISBN 0-945274-29-7 (v.1) LCN: 94-35647
  • "Douglas A-4 Skyhawk", by Nunez Padin (Curator of the Naval Air Museum, Buenos Aires, Argentina); Argentine Naval Air Institute (Instituto Aeronaval), 1995.
  • "Douglas A-4 Skyhawk", by Peter Kilduff, Osprey Publishing London, 1983 (ISBN 0-85045-529-4).
  • "Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, The", By Harry Gann, Profile Publications Ltd. - Number 102
  • Harry Gann's Douglas Aircraft Company Bibliography
  • "McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Since 1920", by Rene J. Francillon, Naval Institute Press, 1988.
  • "McDonnell Douglas A-4A/L Skyhawk in USN-US Marine Corps-Royal Australian Navy & Royal New Zealand Air Force Service", By Ernest R. McDowell, Aircam Aviation Series, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Berkshire, England, Number 27, 1971, 50 pages.
  • "McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk", by Brad Elward, Corwood Press Ltd., Ramsbury, Marlborough Wilshire, SNB 2HR, 2000 (ISBN 1-861126-340-6).
  • "Naval Air War in Vietnam, The", Peter Mersky and Norman Polmar, Nautical and Aviation Publishing Co. of America, Annapolis, MD, 1981.
  • "Naval Fighters Number Forty-Nine Douglas A-4A/B Skyhawk in Navy Service", By Steve Ginter, 2001 (ISBN 0-942612-49-3).
  • "Naval Fighters Number Fifty USMC/USMCR/USNR Douglas A-4A/B Skyhawk", By Steve Ginter with Steven Albright, 2002 (ISBN 0-942612-50-7).
  • "Naval Fighters Number Fifty-One Douglas A-4E/F Skyhawk in Navy Service", By Steve Ginter, 2001 (ISBN 0-942612-51-5).
  • "Naval Fighters Number Fifty-Two Douglas A-4E/F Skyhawk in Marine Service", By Steve Ginter & Steven Albright, 2001 (ISBN 0-942612-52-3).
  • "Naval Fighters Number Fifty-Five Douglas A-4M Skyhawk", By Steve Ginter, 2001 (ISBN 0-942612-55-8).
  • "Navy Attack", Francillon & Lewis, Osprey Publishing, 1973.
  • "Skyhawk", by Kenneth Munson, War Data Number 7, Eshel Gmbh, West Germany, #7, 48 pages.
  • "Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club: U.S. Carrier Operations Off Vietnam", by Rene J. Francillon, Naval Institute Press, 1988.
  • "USN Aircraft Carrier Air Units Volume 3, 1964 - 1973", by Duane Kasulka, Illustrated by Don Greer, Squadron/signal Publications, 1988.
  • "United States Navy Air Wings - Flamboyant Markings 1965-1975", By Francillon & Lewis, Osprey Publishing Ltd., London, 1988 (ISBN 0-850045-870-6).
  • "War Birds: The Diary of an Unknown Aviator (John MacGavock Grider)", by Elliott White Springs, Temple Press, 1926.
  • "Wings of Fame, The Journal of Classic Combat Aircraft, V.4 & V.5", Aerospace Publishing, Ltd., London, 1996. Enclosed article by Harry Gann; "Douglas A-4 Skyhawk Variants."


Other Books:

  • "Douglas A-4A/F Skyhawk", Famous Aircraft Around the World, January 1981, 72 pages.
  • "McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk", Famous Aircraft Around the World, Number 31, Novebmer 11, 1972, 68 pages.
  • "McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk Variants", by Lindsay Peacock, Aviation News, Warpaint Series #21, 1978, 24 pages.
  • "Pocket-Size Combat Aircraft", by E. H. Heinemann, Interavia, vol. X #3, 1955, pages 163-178.
  • "The Official Monogram US Navy & Marine Corps Aircraft Color Guide, Vol 4 1960-1993", by John M. Elliott, Maj. USMC (Ret.) Monogram Aviation Publications, Sturbridge, MA, 1993 (ISBN 0-914144-34-0)


How and where to get materials:
You may borrow books and magazines cited on the Skyhawk Site from your local public library. If for some reason the books are missing from your local library's collection, you can request a purchase by your library or an inter-libray loan of the books for your use.
Books cited above may be purchased at your local book store. If the books are not in stock your book seller will be more than willing to special order them for you.
It is regrettable that many of the titles cited above are no longer in print. However, many used book resellers who deal in military and aviation books have their inventories available on the internet and may be searched via several used book networks. Some of those are listed below.
Internet Book Stores:
Advanced Book Exchange ( Web Site
Amazon Book Store Web Site
Barnes and Noble Book Store Web Site
Icarus Books Web Site
Net Market's Book Store Web Site
Powell's New and Used Book Store Web Site
The Squadron Hobby Shop and Book Store Web Site



  • "A4D Skyhawk", reprint from Flight, March 7, 1958, pages 1-4.
  • "A-4 Skyhawk", Naval Aviation News, March 1958, naval air. 00.75.3, pages 6-18
  • "A-4 Skyhawk", By Roy M. Braybrook, Air International, November 1981, pages 219-223, 236-242
  • "Approach: The Naval Aviation Safety Review", by Commander, Naval Safety Center, NAS Norfolk, VA 23511-5796; Published by: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402. 1953 -
  • "Building the A-4: From Rivets to Runway", By Cdr. Rosario Rausa, Naval Aviation News, October 1977, pages 8-18
  • "Hot Rod of the Jet Fighter Set", By Allen R. Scholin, Air Progress, September 1968.
  • "Hotting-Up the Douglas Hot Rod", "Flying Review International", March 1966, pages 389-392.
  • "Kansas-San Luis con Douglas A-4B", by G. L. Riega, Aviacion y Astronautica, September/December 1971, pages 14-18.
  • "Last A-4", by JOCS Bill Bearden, Naval Aviation News, May 1979, pages 8-17.
  • "Naval Aviation News", by the Chief of Naval Operations, 801 North Randolph Street, Arlington, VA 22203; Published by: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402. 1918-2002.
  • "Pilots Praise the Sturdy Skyhawk", by JOC Bill Case and JO3 John Redmond, Naval Aviation News, March 1968, pages 10-13
  • "Skyhawk", by JOC D. Burlage, USN, Naval Aviation News, March 1968, pages 6-10
  • "The Hook: Journal of Carrier Aviation", by Hook Media, 9696 Business Park Avenue, San Diego, CA 92131-1643. 1972.
  • "The McDonnell Douglas A-4M - The New Skyhawk", Interavia, December 1970, pages 1483-1485.
  • "Skyhawk", Naval Aviation News, August 1971, pages 20-21
  • "United States Marine Corps Skyhawk", By Fred Roos, Replica in Scale, vol. 3 #1, 1975.



  • "The Right Stuff," 193 minutes, Color, Stereo, Laser disc & VHS tape. Warner Brothers Pictures. 1983.
  • "Top Gun," 109 minutes, Color, Stereo, Laser disc & VHS tape. Paramont Pictures. 1986. The movie TOP GUN is dedicated posthumously to Naval Aviator Art Scholl, who was killed while making the movie.


Some of the sources for units "Around the World":

  • Benedetto, Fernando - Argentina
  • Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, Peter Kilduff, Osprey Publishing Ltd., 1983.
  • Felte, Cal -- Argentina A-4AR Fighting Hawks / Lockheed Martin Aircraft Service Co.
  • Gann, Harry S.
  • Guillen, Maximiliano -- Argentina
  • Lockheed Martin Aircraft Service Company, 1997.
  • Lombard, Denny -- Argentina
  • McDonnell-Douglas Aircraft Since 1920, Rene Francillon, Naval Institute Press, 1988.
  • Lcdr. Claudio Mello, Brazilian Navy.
  • Murphy, Stew -- New Zealand A-4 photographs.
  • Simms, Don -- Malaysia and New Zealand A-4 photographs.
  • Tollens, Max --- Kuwaiti A-4KU.
  • Tyner, John R. -- Republic of Singapore A-4 photograph.
  • West, Bruce
  • Whamond, Ronnie -- Argentina
  • Wings of Fame (Journal of Classic Combat Aircraft), V4&5. AIRtime Publishing, Westport, CT, 1996.


Marine Pages:
Some of the sources of information for the Marine pages:

  • Mr. Steve Albright.
  • Mr. Edward M. Armstrong.
  • Col. John Caldas, USMC.
  • Mr. Steve Caldas.
  • Mr. Bill Cline.
  • Mr. Jacque W. Cohen.
  • Mr. Richard M. Cooke
  • Mr. Robert J. Cruze, Sr.
  • Cpl. Veronica Davis, USMC.
  • Mr. Daniel Dugan.
  • Col. Tom Elser, USMC Ret.
  • Mrs. Peggy & George Ertlmeier.
  • Mr. Allen Feldman.
  • Mr. Doug Foreback.
  • Mr. Bob Freeman
  • Mr. Lloyd Gailey.
  • Mr. Harry S. Gann.
  • Mr. Martin Halpin
  • Mr. Masaaki Hayakawa.
  • Mr. Bill Headley.
  • Mr. Bob Herrman.
  • Mr. Takafumi Hiroe.
  • GYSGT Paul Hunt, USMC.
  • Mr. John Keane
  • Mr. Jim Larkin.
  • Mr. Fred Lewis.
  • Mr. Jimmie R. Little.
  • Ms. Roberta Lowe.
  • Mr. Sam Melville.
  • Major Fred Miclon USMC
  • Mr. Frank J. Mirande.
  • Naval Aviation News.
  • Mr. Bob Paul
  • Mr. Mike Perna.
  • Mr. Norman Polmar.
  • LtCol. John Powers, USMC (ret.)
  • CDR David L. Riley, USNR.
  • CPL Rick Rous, USMC (ret).
  • Mr. Durwood Kirby Schnell.
  • Mr. Dave Seaney.
  • Mr. Doug Selby.
  • Mr. Mike Sprinkle.
  • Mr. J. W. Street.
  • Mr. Tom Stump.
  • Mr. Daniel Ventre
  • Mr. Steve Waldschmidt.
  • Mr. Russell Williams.
  • Ms. Lore Wiseman
  • Mr. Toda Yasunori


AAA Anti-Aircraft Artillery  
AAI All-Attitude Indicator  
AAM Air to Air Missile Skyhawks could carry the heat seeking Sidewinder
AGL Above Ground Level  
AGM Air to Ground Mishap  
AID Aviation Information Digest  
ACLS Automated Carrier landing System  
ACM Air Combat Maneuvering  
ADT Active Duty Training Also ACDUTRA
AEW Airborne Early Warning  
ACT Air crew Coordination Training  
ALF Auxiliary Landing Field Often placed in proximity to training fields
ANTAC Air Navigation and Tactical Air Control  
AOM All Officers Meeting Used in the association as “Annual Organization Meeting”
A.P. Armor Piercing  
ASM Air to Surface Missile  
ASP Anti-Ship Patrol  
BuAer Bureau of Aeronautics  
BuNav Bureau of Navigation  
BuNo Bureau Number Each aircraft is assigned a BuNo, never to be repeated.
BuPers Bureau of Personnel  
BuWeps Bureau of Naval Weapons  
CAP Combat Air Patrol  
CAS Close Air Support  
CCA Controlled Carrier Approach  
CINC Commander IN Chief The President of the United States
CINCLANTFLT Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet  
CINCPACFLT Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet  
CNO Chief of Naval Operations  
C.O. Commanding Officer  
CONUS Continental United States  
CQ Carrier Qualification  
CTF Carrier Task Force  
CTG Carrier Task Group  
CV Designation for an Aircraft Carrier C = Carrier, V= heavier than air aircraft – aka no blimps
CVA Aircraft Carrier – Attack Large Classes of Carriers
CVAN Aircraft Carrier – Attack – Nuclear  
CVG Carrier Air Group  
CVS Aircraft Carrier – Escort Smaller classes of carriers
DCNO Deputy Chief of Naval Operations  
Det Detachment Group temporary detached from it's mother unit.
Disest. Disestablished Unit is disbanded
DMZ DeMilitarized Zone  
DoD Department of Defense  
ECM Electronic Counter Measures  
EW Electronic Warefare  
FAA Federal Aviation Agency  
FFAR Folding-Fin Aircraft Rocket  
Flak WWII term for AAA  
FLIR Forward Looking Infrared Radar  
FLOLS Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System  
FM Flight Mishap  
Frequent Wind Code name for the evacuation of Saigon, South Vietnam 18-30 APR 1975 evacuation
FRM Flight Related Mishap  
FRS Fleet Readiness Squadron  
GCA Ground Control Approach Ground radar assistance in landing.
GCT Greenwich Civil Time  
Glomb Guided glider bomb  
G.P. General Purpose  
HUD Heads-Up Display  
HARM High speed Anti-Radiation Missile  
How goes it “How goes it” Curve Plot of an aircraft's “point of no return”.
HVAR High Velocity Aircraft Rocket  
IAS Indicated Air Speed  
IFF Identification Friend or Foe A/C electronics providing recognition signals
IFR Instrument Flight Rules  
IO Indian Ocean  
IP Instructor Pilot  
IR InfraRed  
JATO Jet Assisted TakeOff  
JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff  
Kg KioGrams  
KIA Killed In Action  
KIAS Knots Indicated Air Speed  
Lant Atlantic Ocean  
LSO Landing Signal Officer Sometimes “Paddles” – from the days when he really used paddles
MATS Military Air Transport Service  
MCAF Marine Corps Air Facility  
MCAS Marine Corps Air Station  
MCOLF Marine Corps Outlying Field  
Med Mediterranean Sometimes “MED”
MEDIVAC MEDIcal eVACuation  
MIA Missing In Action  
MiG Russian a/c designed by Artem I. Mikoyan and Mikhail I. Gurevich  
MOS Military Occupational Specialty  
MTBF Mean Time Between Failure  
NAAF Naval Auxiliary Air Facility  
NAAS Naval Auxiliary Air Station  
NAB Naval Air Base  
NAF Naval Air Facility  
NAP Naval Aviation Pilot  
NARC Naval Air Reserve Center  
NARF Naval Air Rework Facility  
NARTC Naval Air Reserve Training Command  
NARTU Naval Air Reserve Training Unit  
NAS Naval Air Station  
NATC Naval Air Test Center or Naval Air Training Command  
NATOPS Naval Air Training and Operating Procedures Standardization If it isn't in here – Don't Do It! :)
NATS Naval Air Transport Service  
NAVRES/NR Naval Reserve  
NCLT Night Carrier Landing Trainer  
NFO Naval Flight Officer  
NOB Naval Operating Base  
NorLant North Atlantic  
Norpac North Pacific  
NRAB Naval Reserve Aviation Base  
NS Naval Station  
OLF OutLying Field  
OPNAV Office of the Chief of Naval Operations  
Ops Operations Sometimes seen as OPS
ORE Operations Readiness Evaulation  
ORI Operations Readiness Inspection  
ORM Operational Risk Management  
OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense  
OUT Operational Training Unit  
P/A Pilotless Aircraft  
Pac Pacific Ocean  
POW Prisoner Of War  
P.R. Puerto Rico  
Pt. Point  
Radar RAdio Detection And Ranging  
RAG Replacement Air Group  
RAT Ram Air Turbine  
Redesig. Redesignated  
RIO Radar Intercept Officer Or BSG (Back Seat Guy)
RON Remain Over Night  
R & R Rest and Recreation  
RVAH Reconnaissance Attack Squadron  
RVN Republic of (South) Vietnam  
SAM Surface-to-Air Missile  
SAR Search And Rescue  
SECDEF SECretary of DEFense  
SECNAV SECretary of the NAVy  
SLEP Service Life Extension Program  
SoLant South Atlantic  
SoPac South Pacific  
SWOD Special Weapons Ordnance Device  
TACAN TACtical Air Navigation  
TACCO TACtical Coordinator  
TAD/TEMADD Temporary Additional Duty  
TAR Training and Administration of reserves  
TAS True Air Speed  
TDY/TEMDU Temporary Duty  
TF Task Force  
TG Task Group  
TPT Tailpipe Temperature Jet engine TPT indicates status of the engine
Transpac Transpacific, flight from CA to Hawaii  
TU Task Unit  
UHF Ultra High Frequency A-4-s used UHG radios
VA Attack Squadron V = heavier than air, A = attack (vs lighter than air blimps)
VAH Heavy Attack Aka A-3 Skywarrior
VAQ Tactical electronic warfare squadron  
VB Bombing squadron (WWII)  
VC Composite Squadron  
VCNO Vice Chief of Naval Operations  
VCP Composite photographic reconnaissance squadron  
VD Photographic Squadron  
VF Fighter Squadron  
VFR Visual Flight Rules  
VHF Very High Frequency Radio freqs used in larger a/c
VP PATrol SquadRON  
VQ Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron  
VR Aircraft Logistics Support Squadron  
VS Scouting squadron or carrier antisubmarine squadron  
V/STOL Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing  
VT Torpedo squadron (WWII)  
VU Utility Squadron  
VW Airborne Early Warning Squadron / weather reconnaissance  
VX Experimental development/air development/air test & evaluation  
WestPac Western Pacific  
XO Executive Officer  
Yankee Station Operational area at 16N-110E in the South China Sea Off the coast of Vietnam

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